After quite a long process, Indonesia has officially submitted its INDC to the UNFCCC, on Sept 24. It was quite ‘under the radar’ which I assume that it is due to Indonesia is currently still fighting with forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan.
INDC, an acronym of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, is basically commitments from parties on targets and efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These targets will be compiled by UNFCCC ahead of Paris Climate negotiation at the end of this year.
Up to date, there are 48 countries have submitted their commitments.
On its INDC, Indonesia is announcing to cut 29 percent emissions by 2030, a slight 3 percent increase from previous commitments. In addition, 41 percent with international help is still apply in the INDC.
In order to reach the target, the 11-pages document reveals that Indonesia will rely much of emission reduction through energy sector citing its energy mix policy for 2014-2050, up to 23 percent will be coming from new and renewable energy by 2025.
On land use and land use change and foresry (LULUCF), the government will be strengthening on-going forest moratorium through ‘protection and conservation of its remaining forests by reducing deforestation and forest degradation, restoring ecosystem functions, as well as sustainable forest management […]’.
Furthermore, it also pushes forward waste management sector underlining on ‘Reduce, Reuse, Recycle’ approach.
Before submitted to the UNFCCC, the Ministry decided to ‘test’ the INDC for public consultation in late August. It was met with mixed reactions. Some hailed the effort for transparency as the ministry was available for public comments or inputs. Though, some also criticizing the report mechanism was still unclear and not transparent.
As for the content, prominent NGOs, such as Greenpeace Indonesia, Walhi, HuMa, Forest Watch Indonesia, and AMAN, have strongly criticized on the drafted document. Even World Resources Institute (WRI) had also compose a respond to the draft.
In summary, civil societies and experts, alike, were questioning on Indonesia’s elaborated steps to achieve the targets, the baseline, the policies, and the emission itself.
Meanwhile, AMAN (Indonesia’s Indigenous people’s alliance) took on more specific issue. They rejected ‘adat communities’ term in the text as it would reduce indigenous people’s standing point in the negotiation table. (Rachmat Witoelar, special envoy for climate change, contested to this idea stating that Indonesia does not recognize the term of indigenous people as all Indonesians are indigenous).
So, apart of these inputs, there were not much changes between the draft and the final submission, but climate change budget omission. The draft revealed that Indonesia has spent US$ 17.48 billion for climate change mitigation and adaptation between 2007-2014. In addition, the country will allocating US$ 55.01 billion between 2015-2019. But, no numbers are revealed in the final submission.
Here is the final submission of Indonesia’s INDC to the UNFCCC :
The draft took a little longer with 15 pages and included budget allocation for climate change mitigation and adaptation :